Changes in the shortening fraction of the ischemic area during coronary occlusions were similar in all three series; after the last occlusion the shortening fraction in the control series was -14.9% with respect to basal values, -14.6% in series A and -16.6% in series B. Sixty minutes after the last ischemia, the shortening fraction impairment in respect to the basal values was larger in the control series (-18.9%) and in series A (-16.9%). In series B there was recovery (-13.5%) (p < 0.05 vs control series).
Experiments have shown that in the vascular smooth muscle neferine (Nef) can markedly reduce the 45Ca-influx induced by phenylephrine, but does not affect the 45Ca-influx induced by mmol/L KCl, which is almost completely inhibited by nifedipine. Neferine does not inhibit 45Ca-efflux.
Eurycomanone enhanced testosterone steroidogenesis at the Leydig cells by inhibiting aromatase conversion of testosterone to oestrogen, and at a high concentration may also involve phosphodiesterase inhibition. The quassinoid may be worthy for further development as a phytomedicine to treat testosterone-deficient idiopathic male infertility and sterility.
Calcium channel antagonists are widely prescribed in obstetrics and gynecology for blood pressure control and tocolysis. Concerns have recently arisen regarding the safety of these agents. Several studies found that short-acting forms of calcium channel blockers were associated with increased cardiovascular mortality, malignancy, and gastrointestinal bleeding. A recent meta-analysis found a significant increase in the risk of mortality in patients treated with a short-acting form of nifedipine. Another subgroup analysis of an observational study of older hypertensive patients found a significantly increased risk of cancer and gastrointestinal hemorrhage in patients prescribed calcium channel blockers. Both in vitro and small human in vitro series have reported a potential for cardiac toxicity in pregnant women treated concomitantly with calcium channel blockers and magnesium sulfate. Until additional data are available, we suggest that when calcium channel blockers are used in obstetrics and gynecology, the long-acting variety be prescribed. Concurrent use of calcium channel blockers and magnesium sulfate should be undertaken cautiously because of the potential for synergistic depression of cardiac function.
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Design methods of nanoparticle formulations are divided into a break-down method and a build-up method. Furthermore, the former is further divided into dry and wet processes. For drug nanoparticle preparations, the wet process is generally employed, and organic solvents are used in most formulations. In this study, we investigated the preparation of nifedipine (NI) nanoparticles without using any organic solvent. NI nanoparticles with a mean particle size of approximately 50 nm could be prepared without organic solvent by a combination of roll mixing and high-pressure homogenization. The X-ray diffraction peak of the sample prepared by roll mixing was present at an identical position (2theta) to that of NI crystals, showing that no peak shift was induced by interaction with lipid. These findings clarified that most NI remained as crystals in lipid. To maintain the particle size of the nanoparticles in suspension for a long time, a method of adding gelatin powder to the NI-lipid nanoparticle suspension, dissolving the mixture by heating, and then solidifying by cooling was investigated. The mean particle size of the sample was about 55 nm, and that after heat-liquefaction of the NI-lipid nanoparticle suspension gelated at 5 degrees C for 24h was also about 55 nm, showing that the nanoparticle condition was retained.
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There is an increasing evidence of medicines related issues such as inappropriate prescribing among older people. Inappropriate prescribing is an important risk factor for adverse drug reactions and hospitalizations in the older people.
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Preterm birth represents the single largest cause of mortality and morbidity for newborns and a major cause of morbidity for pregnant women. Tocolytic agents include a wide range of drugs that can inhibit labour to prolong pregnancy. This may gain time to allow the fetus to mature further before being born, permit antenatal corticosteroid administration for lung maturation, and allow time for intra-uterine transfer to a hospital with neonatal intensive care facilities. However, some tocolytic drugs are associated with severe side effects. Combinations of tocolytic drugs may be more effective over single tocolytic agents or no intervention, without adversely affecting the mother or neonate.