Arterial hypertension is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and one of the major causes for mortality worldwide. Drugs, that control hypertension effectively are therefore needed to reduce hypertension induced morbidity and mortality. The inhibition of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system (RAAS) is one target to control blood pressure in these patients. The new direct renin inhibitor aliskiren is one new substance on the market to inhibit the RAAS effectively by suppression of the plasma renin activity, which inhibits the RAAS at its rate-limiting step. Therefore, aliskiren in monotherapy and in combination might yield beneficial effects for the patients. Nevertheless, blood pressure lowering has to be combined with a reduction of target organ damage for all drug classes prescribed to patients with hypertension. Therefore, we review here the major effects of this new drug not only in regard to hypertension but also in regard to target organ damage reduction and possible changes in morbidity and mortality, which future trials will investigate.
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Irbesartan reduced the fluid content and hydroxyproline level in the lung and improved the pathological findings as indicated by the Ashcroft score. Total cell counts, the numbers of macrophages, neutrophils, and lymphocytes, and the levels of transforming growth factor (TGF) β1 and monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP) 1 in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were decreased. Treatment with a PPARγ antagonist GW9662 reversed some of the effects of irbesartan.
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In a multicenter, randomized, double-blind trial, the authors compared the antihypertensive efficacy of once-daily treatment with the new angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker (ARB) olmesartan (20 mg) with recommended starting doses of losartan (50 mg), valsartan (80 mg), and irbesartan (150 mg) in 588 patients with a cuff diastolic blood pressure (DBP) of greater than or equal to 100 and less than or equal to 115 mm Hg and a mean daytime DBP of greater than or equal to 90 mm Hg and less than 120 mm Hg, as measured by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Cuff and ambulatory blood pressures were monitored at baseline and after 8 weeks of treatment. All groups were predominantly white and approximately 62% male, and their mean age was approximately 52 years. In all groups, mean baseline DBP and systolic blood pressure (SBP) were approximately 104 and 157 mm Hg, respectively. The reduction of sitting cuff DBP with olmesartan (11.5 mm Hg), the primary efficacy variable of this study, was significantly greater than with losartan, valsartan, and irbesartan (8.2, 7.9, and 9.9 mm Hg, respectively). Reductions of cuff SBP with the four ARBs ranged from 8.4-11.3 mm Hg and were not significantly different. The reduction in mean 24-hour DBP with olmesartan (8.5 mm Hg) was significantly greater than reductions with losartan and valsartan (6.2 and 5.6 mm Hg, respectively) and showed a trend toward significance when compared to the reduction in DBP with irbesartan (7.4 mm Hg; p=0.087). The reduction in mean 24-hour SBP with olmesartan (12.5 mm Hg) was significantly greater than the reductions with losartan and valsartan (9.0 and 8.1 mm Hg, respectively) and equivalent to the reduction with irbesartan (11.3 mm Hg). All drugs were well tolerated. The authors conclude that olmesartan, at its starting dose, is more effective than the starting doses of the other ARBs tested in reducing cuff DBP in patients with essential hypertension.
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A meta-analysis was conducted using PubMed, Cochrane Library and EMBASE to investigate and analyze the effects of amlodipine versus angiotensin receptor blockers for blood pressure, associated adverse events, and cardiac structure and function. Data was collected from database inception through October 2014.
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133 patients with type 2 diabetic nephropathy (age, 66 ± 8 years; 76% men) from 17 centers in Spain.
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In control (C) and fructose-fed hypertensive (F) rats, we studied: 1) the effects of hypothalamic perfusion of irbesartan (AT(1) angiotensin receptor antagonist, 50 and 500 microg ml(-1)) and metoprolol (beta(1) adrenergic receptor antagonist, 10 and 100 microg ml(-1)) on blood pressure, heart rate and noradrenaline intrahypothalamic levels, by means of the microdialysis technique; and 2) the effects of intrahypothalamic microinjection of angiotensin II alone or after metoprolol pre-administration, on blood pressure and heart rate.
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A number of intervention studies have shown that therapy with angiotensin receptor blockers, such as irbesartan, can improve metabolic parameters and reduce the incidence of diabetes mellitus. It is unknown whether this observation also holds true in routine clinical settings.
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In the 10(-4), 10(-5), 10(-6) mol/L treatment groups, cell proliferation studies revealed significantly increased proliferation in EA.hy926 cells after 24 hours of irbesartan treatment. However, after 48 and 72 hours of treatment with different concentrations of irbesartan, there was no significant difference in cell proliferation observed in any treatment group. We selected the group stimulated with irbersartan at a concentration of 10(-6) mol/L for microarray experiments. Statistical analysis of the microarray data resulted in the identification of 56 gene transcripts whose expression patterns were significantly correlated, negatively or positively, with irbesartan treatment. Cluster analysis showed that these genes were involved in angiogenesis, extracellular stimulus, binding reactions and skeletal system morphogenesis. Of these 56 genes we identified seven genes (VEGF, KDR, PTGS2, PLXND1, ROBO4, LMO2, and COL5A1) involved in the angiogenesis process. qRT-PCR analysis of these genes confirmed the microarray results. Protein expression of three VEGF pathway genes (VEGF, KDR, and PTGS2) was further confirmed by Western blotting.
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The results suggest that irbesartan can attenuate atherosclerosis, and this effect is partly related to the inhibition of oxidative stress and inflammatory signal transduction pathways which eventually leads to the decrease in the expression of inflammatory cytokines.