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All relevant published randomised clinical trials were selected for inclusion if treatment consisted of pulsatile GnRH administration versus another treatment for ovulation induction in subfertile women with PCOS.
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Forty-three patients who responded poorly to previous stimulation with clomiphene citrate (CC)/human menopausal gonadotrophin (HMG) for IVF were followed during 70 further cycles. Eighteen patients had a normal FSH response to CC in the previous cycle, while 25 had an abnormal FSH response. Three stimulation protocols were used: buserelin/HMG, CC/HMG and HMG only. No difference between the two groups was observed in the dose of HMG used for any stimulation protocol. More cycles were cancelled due to a poor response in the abnormal response group compared to the normal response group. In the completed cycles, the maximum oestradiol level and number of oocytes retrieved were lower in the abnormal response group compared to the normal response group. The total pregnancy rate per patient, including spontaneous conceptions during the study period, was lower in the abnormal response group compared to the normal response group, 4 versus 33%. We conclude that poor responders with an abnormal FSH response to CC have a latent ovarian failure with a low chance of success in further IVF attempts.
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The aim of the current study was to assess whether clomiphene citrate (CC) and/or active metabolites are present at presumed time of ovulation, nidation, or steroid-sensitive organogenesis, in serum of patients receiving CC for induction of ovulation. A radioreceptor assay, based on competitive replacement of 3H-estradiol on the rat uterus estrogen receptor, by ligands present in serum of patients after CC administration, was developed. Ligands reached maximal concentration 4 to 5 hours after a single dose of CC was administered, and declined with a half-life of 4.5 to 10 hours. In patients receiving CC on day 5 to day 9 in the cycle, ligands are still present on day 14 in the cycle and in some patients on day 22 of the cycle, but no ligands were detected 60 days after CC treatment.
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Twelve patients with PCOS undergoing therapy for infertility.
The study of 53 pregnancies which were the result of induction of ovulation using a standard treatment with 100 mg of clomiphene citrate and 3 injections of 1,500 I.U. of H.C.G. showed no increase in the risk of fetal malformation. Before treatment this same group of women has a high risk of spontaneous abortion (43p. 100). After treatment in 53 conceptions 7 ended with an abortion which, is 13p. 100. The risks which follow this treatment are above all dominated by the definite increase in twin pregnancies and in prematurity which follows from this factor.
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Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common female endocrinopathy, affecting 5-10% of the female population. It involves overproduction of ovarian androgens leading to a heterogeneous range of symptoms including hirsutism, acne, anovulation and infertility. Hyperinsulinaemia, exacerbated by obesity, is often a key feature. Treatment depends on the presenting symptoms, which may often be ameliorated by weight loss where relevant. Anti-androgen preparations are used for hyperandrogenic symptoms, and clomiphene citrate (CC) is the first-line treatment for anovulation and infertility. Aromatase inhibitors are being investigated as an alternative to CC. Failure to conceive with CC can be treated in a number of ways, including the addition of insulin-lowering agents (mainly metformin), low-dose gonadotrophin therapy or surgically by laparoscopic ovarian drilling. Although the exact aetiology of PCOS is not known, the therapeutic alternatives provide reasonably successful symptomatic treatment.
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Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous disorder. The phenotype may differ between patients who exhibit signs of recent ovulation and anovulatory PCOS patients.