Hirsutism was assessed by measuring hair diameter. Follicle-stimulating hormone and LH responses to GnRH were evaluated. Basal plasma levels of T, androstenedione (A), 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP), DHEAS, cortisol (F), and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) were evaluated. The same hormones were determined after a single dose of flutamide (250 or 500 mg) or placebo throughout a 12-hour period and in samples collected 60 and 120 minutes after ACTH intravenous injection.
Recently we constructed yeast cells that either express the human estrogen receptor alpha or the human androgen receptor in combination with a consensus ERE or ARE repeat in the promoter region of a green fluorescent protein (yEGFP) read-out system. These bioassays were proven to be highly specific for their cognate agonistic compounds. In this study the value of these yeast bioassays was assessed for analysis of compounds with antagonistic properties. Several pure antagonists, selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) and plant-derived compounds were tested. The pure antiestrogens ICI 182,780 and RU 58668 were also classified as pure ER antagonists in the yeast estrogen bioassay and the pure antiandrogen flutamide was also a pure AR antagonist in the yeast androgen bioassay. The plant-derived compounds flavone and guggulsterone displayed both antiestrogenic and antiandrogenic activities, while 3,3'-diindolylmethane (DIM) and equol combined an estrogenic mode of action with an antiandrogenic activity. Indol-3-carbinol (I3C) only showed an antiandrogenic activity. Coumestrol, genistein, naringenin and 8-prenylnaringenin were estrogenic and acted additively, while the plant sterols failed to show any effect. Although hormonally inactive, in vitro and in vivo metabolism of the aforementioned plant sterols may still lead to the formation of active metabolites in other test systems.
Two HPLC-DAD assays for the simultaneous quantitation of exemestane (EXE) and resveratrol (RES)-Mix 1-and EXE and luteolin (LUT)-Mix 2-in novel breast cancer therapy nanoformulations were developed. Calibration curves 15-30 µg/mL and samples were injected through an Inertsil ODS-3 (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 µm) column. The gradient elution for Mix 1 was methanol : 0.05% (v/v) acetic acid in water (60 : 40 to 80 : 20, linear over 2 min), and for Mix 2, it was methanol : water (60 : 40 for 4 min, then ramped linearly to 90 : 10, over 12 min) pumped at 1.5 mL/min for 4 min, then 1 mL/min till the end of run. EXE, RES, LUT and flutamide (internal standard (IS)) were measured at 246, 307, 350 and 300 nm, respectively. For Mix 1, RES, EXE and IS eluted at 3.5, 6.8 and 7.4 min, respectively, while for Mix 2, LUT, EXE and IS eluted at 7.5, 11.4 and 12.7 min, respectively. The mean r(2) for the standard curves was ≥0.99, and percentage coefficient of variation and % error of the mean were <2. Both assays successfully quantitated Mix 1 and Mix 2 in their nanoformulations. The two developed assays were sensitive and selective for the analysis of EXE-LUT and EXE-RES mixtures in nanoformulations according to International Conference on Harmonization guidelines.
This study included 35 Japanese men with advanced prostate cancer. Initial androgen ablation continued for 2 months after PSA levels decreased to <4.0 ng/ml, then was withdrawn. Androgen ablation was reinstituted 2 months after PSA reached levels >10 ng/ml, when indicated clinically or on patient request. Cycling continued until androgen independence was reached.
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Many patients with prostate cancer for whom hormonal therapy is indicated are still physically and sexually active; quality of life is therefore a vital issue when considering treatment options. Traditional castration-based therapies, although effective, have implications with respect to quality of life, causing loss of libido, impotence, fatigue, and reduced bone mineral density. Monotherapy with a nonsteroidal antiandrogen is an attractive therapeutic alternative to castration, offering effective therapy with potential quality-of-life benefits. Of the available nonsteroidal antiandrogens, bicalutamide has been most extensively evaluated in the monotherapy setting. Mature combined data (56% mortality) from 2 large randomized studies show no statistically significant difference in overall survival between bicalutamide 150-mg monotherapy and castration in patients with locally advanced, nonmetastatic (stage M0) disease. Survival outcome in patients with metastatic (stage M1) disease (43% mortality) favored castration, although the difference in median survival between the groups was only 6 weeks. Bicalutamide 150-mg monotherapy was associated with significant advantages compared with castration, in terms of sexual interest and physical capacity, in patients with either M0 and M1 stage disease. Data from a small subgroup of patients with stage M0 disease suggest that bicalutamide may also reduce the risk of osteoporosis compared with castration. Long-term therapy with bicalutamide 150-mg monotherapy is generally well tolerated, with a predictable side-effect profile. The most common side effects are male breast pain and gynecomastia. Emerging evidence also supports the use of bicalutamide 150 mg, both as immediate monotherapy and as adjuvant therapy in early stage (localized or locally advanced) prostate cancer.
Sixty-two patients with clinical stage T3 and T4 N0,M0 prostate cancer were enrolled. Cases were classified by stage T3 vs T4 and by volume of disease (bulky >4 cm and nonbulky ≤ 4 cm).
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It is known that expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) as an astrocyte-specific marker can be regulated by levels of circulating gonadal steroids during postnatal development. In addition, astrocytes play an important role in the physiology of the hippocampus, a brain region considered sexually dimorphic at the neuronal level in rodents. To evaluate the contribution of glial cells to gender-related differences in the hippocampus, we estimated the number of GFAP-immunoreactive (GFAP-IR) astrocytes in the hippocampus (CA1 and CA3 areas, dorsal and ventral regions) of male and female rats aged 30 days. Groups of 30-day-old masculinized females (TP-females; injected with testosterone propionate at birth) and feminized males (FLU-males, castrated and treated with flutamide, an androgen receptor antagonist) were included to assess the effects of gonadal hormones on these hippocampal astrocytes. Using the optical fractionator method, the total number of GFAP-IR cells found in CA1 and CA3 areas was significantly higher in males compared to that in age-matched females. This numerical pattern was reversed in TP-females and FLU-males in both hippocampal areas. In addition, more GFAP-IR cells were found in dorsal hippocampus than in the ventral region in the CA1 area from all experimental groups, whereas this result was found in the CA3 area from males and TP-females. Our results suggest an essential contribution of gonadal hormones to gender differences found in the astrocyte population of the rat hippocampus during development.
Androgens are known to increase muscle mass, strength and muscle protein synthesis. However, the molecular mechanisms by which androgens regulate skeletal muscle development remain poorly understood. The ribosomal protein kinase p70(s6k) is a regulator of ribosome biogenesis and plays an important role in the regulation of growth-related protein synthesis. The phosphorylation of p70(s6k) has been implicated in load-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy. In the current study, we determined the effect of DHT on the phosphorylation of p70(s6k) in the androgen-sensitive levator ani muscle of castrated rats. DHT induced a rapid increase in the phosphorylation of p70(s6k), which was detectable within 6 h after a single injection. Interestingly, DHT-induced phosphorylation of p70(s6k) occurred only in androgen-sensitive muscles, but not prostate and seminal vesicle. Co-administration of flutamide, an AR antagonist, inhibited DHT-induced p70(s6k) phosphorylation. While serum IGF-I levels were not changed by DHT treatment, IGF-I gene expression levels increased and the mRNA levels of IGFBP3 and IGFBP5 were suppressed in the LA muscle after DHT replacement in castrated rats. These results suggest that the phosphorylation of p70(s6k), likely via the IGF-I pathway, may play an important role in androgen-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy.
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From 10/88 to 12/93, 517 T1-T3 NXM0 patients with known pretreatment PSA level were treated at Fox Chase Cancer Center. Four hundred fifty-nine of those patients were treated with RT alone while 58 were treated with RT+H. The patients were categorized according to putative prognostic factors indicative of bNED control, which include the palpation stage, Gleason score, and pretreatment PSA. We compared actuarial bNED control rates according to treatment group within each of the prognostic groups. In addition, we devised a retrospective matched case/control selection of RT patients for comparison with the RT+H group. Five-year bNED control was compared for the two treatment groups, excluding the best prognosis group, using 56 RT+H patients and 56 matched (by stage, grade, and pretreatment PSA level) controls randomly selected from the RT alone group. bNED control for the entire group of 517 patients was then analyzed multivariately using step-wise Cox regression to determine independent predictors of outcome. Covariates considered for entry into the model included stage (T1/T2AB vs. T2C/T3), grade (2-6 vs. 7-10), pretreatment PSA (0-15 vs. > 15), treatment (RT vs. RT+H), and center of prostate dose. bNED failure is defined as PSA > or = 1.5 ngm/ml and rising on two consecutive determinations. The median follow-up for the 112 matched case/control patients was 41 months. The median follow-up was 46 months for the RT (range 11-102 months) and 37 months for the RT+H group (range 6-82 months).
With a median follow-up of 37.9 and 46.0 months in the matched non-pT0 and pT0 cohort respectively, matched-pair analysis failed to demonstrate significant differences in crude PSA relapse-free survival between both groups (p=0.7758).