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Scientific and clinical data were collected through searches of PubMed, ClinicalTrials.gov, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, and the FDA, using the search term iloperidone, and limited to English-language articles. Reference lists were reviewed for additional publications. Dates included the beginning of the database through 2010. No limits were placed on study design.
The aim of the present study was to validate the model further using the atypical antipsychotic clozapine and then to investigate the effects of lamotrigine, a broad-spectrum anticonvulsant that is known to reduce glutamate release in vitro and is able to prevent ketamine-induced psychotic symptoms in healthy human volunteers. A further aim was to compare effects of PCP and D-amphetamine in the test and investigate the effects of the typical antipsychotic haloperidol against the latter.
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The test and reference preparation of ziprasidone are bioequivalent.
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Bipolar affective disorder is a serious mental disease associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Good-quality research available to guide treatment strategies remains insufficient, particularly with regard to manic or hypomanic episodes. A critical review of the various stages of mania might be helpful for pharmaceutical companies and investigators as a prerequisite for the clinical evaluation of potential antimanic properties of medications. The main difficulty is with a comparison between anticonvulsants, antipsychotics, and mood stabilizers such as lithium (with equal efficacy in the acute phase and the prevention of recurrent manic episodes). No consensus has been reached with regard to the treatment of bouts of acute mania in various parts of the world. Controlled clinical trials have, at last, provided irrefutable evidence of the activity of lithium, which has long been used alone, as well as that of divalproate or its derivatives and, to a lesser extent, carbamazepine. The new antipsychotic agents have more recently established their efficacy, especially aripiprazole, asenapine, quetiapine; olanzapine, risperidone, and ziprasidone (not sure where the paradox is). In Europe, haloperidol is still the reference substance used in clinical trials despite the fact that it is not officially indicated in the treatment of mania. In the USA, lithium, divalproate, or antipsychotics can be prescribed as first-line treatment. In Europe, lithium remains the first-line medication, whereas divalproate and atypical antipsychotic agents are used only as second-line therapy. Although both types of medication (antipsychotics, normothymic agents, and/or anticonvulsants) have proved to be clinically effective in the management of mania by reducing the mania scores overall, the same does not apply, however, to all symptoms of mania. Factorial approaches to mania have all shown that since there are several clinical forms of mania, several clusters of manic symptoms can be identified. Antipsychotic and normothymic agents and/or anticonvulsants do not appear to have the same effects on each of these identifiable clusters of symptoms, mainly psychotic features. We believe that it is vitally important for future clinical trials of mania treatment to focus on the treatment effect by adopting a factorial approach to characterization of the episode using an appropriate methodological structure. These questions highlight the uncertainty shrouding the very structure of manic episodes, namely that these are predominantly of a thymic or psychotic nature. The Europeans undoubtedly consider mania to be more of a thymic episode and prefer lithium as the first-line treatment, whereas the Americans believe that psychotic symptoms dominate and widely prescribe antipsychotic agents. However, from the standpoint of clinical trials currently available, even though antipsychotic agents are certainly effective in reducing the scores on the mania scales, it is not clear whether they can be considered purely as antimania treatments.
Some anticonvulsants and antipsychotics seemed effective for acute bipolar depression, but most antipsychotics were not well tolerated. Antidepressants were effective and well-tolerated; lithium remains inadequately tested.
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Paliperidone ER is efficacious, safe, and well accepted when compared with other pooled SGAs for the treatment of Chinese patients with schizophrenia.
To evaluate the effects of zotepine compared with other second generation antipsychotic drugs for people suffering from schizophrenia and schizophrenia-like psychoses.
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Drug-induced weight gain is a major problem in the treatment of psychiatric disorders, especially with some antipsychotic- and antidepressant drugs. We have recently demonstrated that antipsychotic- and antidepressant drugs activate the SREBP (sterol regulatory element-binding proteins) transcription factors in human- and rat glial cells, with subsequent up-regulation of downstream genes involved in cholesterol- and fatty acid biosynthesis. Since stimulation of cellular lipogenesis in the liver could be of relevance for the metabolic side effects of these drugs, we have now investigated the effects of antidepressants, antipsychotic- and mood-stabilizing drugs on cell cultures of human liver cells. For several of the drugs being strongly associated with weight gain (clozapine, imipramine, and amitriptyline), we observed a very pronounced activation of SREBP. Ziprasidone and buproprion, however, which are not associated with weight gain, did hardly stimulate the SREBP system. For haloperidol, olanzapine and mirtazapine, the correspondence between metabolic side effects and SREBP stimulation in liver cells was less obvious. The mood-stabilizers did not increase SREBP activation. The results indicate a relationship between drug-induced activation of SREBP in cultured human liver cells and weight gain side-effects of antidepressant and antipsychotic drugs.