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There is increasing concern regarding antimicrobial resistance in Pakistan. Data are limited on the prevalence, pattern of resistance and risk factors associated with resistant organisms. This Study was done to address these issues as they relate to common infection of male/female.
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In order to evaluate efficacy and safety of L-Keflex (granule form of sustained release cephalexin), a double blind study comparing it with Keflex (capsule of regular cephalexin) was conducted in dental infections. Evaluable cases in adults for efficacy of the drugs were 196 consisting of 97 for L-Keflex and 99 for Keflex. Those in children were 19 (8 for L-Keflex and 11 for Keflex). There were no significant differences in background of the patients and severity of the diseases between both groups (L-Keflex and Keflex groups). The daily doses used in both groups were 1,000 mg in adults and 500 mg in children, respectively. The dose was given in two divided doses for L-Keflex group and in four divided doses for Keflex group. Following are evaluation by the committee members for the study: Adults 1. Clinical response rate at final therapy day was 93.8% in L-Keflex group and 92.9% in Keflex group, showing no significant difference between both groups. 2. No significant difference in severity of subjective and objective symptoms between both groups was observed at each therapy day. 3. Side effects were found in 6.7% of 105 patients receiving L-Keflex and in 5.6% of 107 patients with Keflex, and there was no significant difference between both groups. As the side effects, gastrointestinal symptoms, rash and itching were observed, but no any other side effects were found in both groups. Children 1. As shown in the above, number of the cases enough to evaluate statistically was not obtained, but all of both groups clinically responded to the drugs. 2. As for side effects diarrhea was observed in only one patient of Keflex group consisting of 12 patients. In the patient, however, discontinuation of the drug was not required and the side effect disappeared during the therapy. From the above results, L-Keflex (granule) is judged to have more convenience than Keflex (capsule) in that (1) it can be administered with b.i.d. regimen and (2) it can be easily taken in dental patients such as patients having difficulty in opening mouth of swallowing pain.
keflex bid dosing
Acquired thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is an autoimmune disorder. The pathogenesis is believed to be mediated by an autoantibody directed against the metalloproteinase responsible for the degradation of the very-high-molecular-weight multimers of the vWF. The syndrome can be precipitated by a variety of conditions, and certain medications also have been implicated.
keflex pediatric dosing
In two prospective, randomized multicenter double-blind studies with a dosage of either 250 mg given four times a day (study A) or 500 mg given two times a day (study B), the comparative efficacy and safety of cephalexin hydrochloride (LY061188; Keftab) and cephalexin monohydrate (Keflex) for treatment of skin and soft tissue infections were determined. In study A, 97 patients received cephalexin hydrochloride and 101 patients received cephalexin monohydrate. In study B, 75 patients received cephalexin hydrochloride and 70 patients received cephalexin monohydrate. Diagnoses included abscesses, cellulitis, wound infections, and infected dermatitis, and were comparable in the different treatment groups. Pathogens were isolated from 82% of patients enrolled; the majority of isolates were of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, other staphylococcal species, and a few gram-negative bacteria. In study A, 68 of 71 (95.7%) evaluable patients who received cephalexin hydrochloride responded satisfactorily; 73 of 81 (90%) patients who received cephalexin monohydrate also responded satisfactorily. In study B, 56 of 58 (96.5%) evaluable patients who received cephalexin hydrochloride responded satisfactorily; 47 of 50 (94%) patients who received cephalexin monohydrate also responded satisfactorily. An adverse clinical event leading to discontinuation of the treatment drug developed in 17 of 343 (4.95%) patients in both studies. No differences were noted between the two drugs. Skin eruptions, pruritus, and mild gastrointestinal symptoms were the common adverse effects. These data suggest that cephalexin hydrochloride, a new formulation of cephalexin, is a safe and effective antimicrobial agent for treatment of a variety of skin and subcutaneous infections in a dosage of either 250 mg four times a day or 500 mg twice a day.
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Proteus species produces toxins and constitutes a causative agent of some chronic and recurrent infections. For the study of haemolytic activity and the production and inhibition kinetics, a total of 140 local isolates were diagnosed and examined by the general biochemical methods, and their ability of haemolysis were tested by both direct and indirect methods utilizing the enrichment procedure for all strains. Two antibiotics, erythromycin and keflex (cephalexin), were tested for the study of haemolysis inhibition and its kinetisc. Rof further study, examples of Proteus species were selected; the new approach was based on mixing procedure between P. aeruginosa (also pyocyanine) and Proteus species for inhibition of haemolytic activity. Spectrophotometric analysis were used parallel to these studies to support quantitatively the observed results as all samples show an absorption centre at 542 +/- 1 nm. Results of such analysis of haemolytic activity and inhibition kinetics are presented.
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The resistance of two biomaterials, one synthetic and one biologic in origin, to deliberate bacterial infection was compared in a dog model of orthopedic soft tissue reconstruction. Twenty-four adult female dogs were randomly divided into two equal groups and a 2.0-cm-round full-thickness defect was created on the lateral surface of the stifle joint, leaving only the synovium and skin intact. The defect was surgically repaired with either Dacron trade mark mesh or a porcine derived extracellular matrix (ECM) scaffold material. The repair site was inoculated with 1 x 10(8) Staphylococcus aureus at the time of surgery and the dogs were survived for 28 days. Results showed a chronic pyogranulomatous inflammatory response at the Dacron trade mark implant sites versus a constructive tissue-remodeling response without residual inflammation at the ECM implant site. Three dogs in the group receiving the Dacron trade mark mesh were treated with Keflex trade mark (500 mg bid x 7 days) for signs of septicemia. A quantitative bacterial count of the implant sites at the time of sacrifice showed 6.52 x 10(5) +/- 1.2 x 10(6) and 6.5 x 10(2) +/- 1.8 x 10(3) bacteria per gram of tissue for the Dacron trade mark and ECM scaffold sites, respectively (P <.03). The ECM implant material was more resistant than the synthetic implant material to persistent infection following deliberate bacterial contamination and the ECM scaffold supported constructive tissue remodeling.
keflex dose pediatric
A prospective study has been made of 36 children with ruptured appendicitis. Alternate patients were managed with a standard protocol of therapy differing only in the antibiotics used. One group received a combination of penicillin/streptomycin/sulfadiazine while the other children were treated with cephalothin (Keflin) and cephalexin (Keflex). No major infections complications occurred in the P/S/S study group but there were four in the C/C patients. No serious adverse reactions due to the antibiotics occurred in either group.
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A prospective, randomized, double-blind evaluation of Loridine-Keflex prophylaxis in a homogeneous group of 32 patients undergoing sequential cervical conization and vaginal hysterectomy is reported. There was no infectious or febrile morbidity in the 18 oatuebts receuvubg abtubuitucs, Morbidity occurred in six of 14 patients receiving placebos (P is less than 0.05). Antibiotic prophylaxis and conization-hysterectomy morbidity are discussed.
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Although the number of severe infections occurring after vaginal hysterectomy are few,they sometimes result in the death of a patient or a protracted hospital course. A prospective double-blind study, using Keflex and Keflin in theraputic doses,was undertaken to elucidate more clearly the effect upon morbidity in vaginal hysterectomy. Cultures were taken form a catheterized urine specimen and the cervix of all patients before surgery. Cultures were repeated on the fourth postoperative day. Morbidity was defined as an oral temperature of 100.6 degrees F. on two separate occasions, 4hours apart in the postoperative period. Of the 60 patients studied thus far, 43.3 percent of the 30 placebo patients exceeded these febrile limits and were determined as thosewith infectious morbidity. Only 13.3 of the 30 patients who received the prophalatic drug showed this morbidity.