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Patients of mild to moderate hypertension were randomized to receive either 40 mg of telmisartan or enalapril 10 mg once a day orally for 12 weeks. At each visit, the systolic blood pressure (BP), diastolic BP and heart rate of each patient were recorded. Investigations such as hemogram hemoglobin, total leucocytes count (Hb, TLC), serum creatinine, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, serum glutamic pyruric transaminase (SGOT, SGPT) random blood sugar and urine examination were performed at baseline and after 12 weeks of the treatment period.
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Telmisartan, unlike other angiotensin-receptor blockers, is a partial agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ, a property that has been associated with improvements in surrogate markers of cardiovascular health in small trials involving patients with diabetes. However, whether this property translates into a reduced risk of cardiovascular events and death in these patients is unknown. We sought to explore the risk of myocardial infarction, stroke and heart failure in patients with diabetes who were taking telmisartan relative to the risk of these events occurring in patients taking other angiotensin-receptor blockers.
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Only a minority of patients treated for hypertension achieve controlled blood pressure (BP) levels. Therapy with fixed-dose combinations of an angiotensinreceptor blocker (ARB) and low-dose hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) is commonly prescribed but not always sufficient to achieve the target BP. The efficacy and safety of the fixed-dose combination of valsartan 160 mg and HCTZ 25 mg was evaluated in patients in whom BP had not been controlled with a fixed-dose combination of another ARB and low-dose HCTZ (12.5 mg) in a multicenter trial. After a wash-out period for antihypertensive drugs, patients with a mean sitting diastolic BP (DBP) at trough (3)100 mm Hg but <110 mm Hg were treated with candesartan cilexetil 16 mg plus HCTZ 12.5 mg or telmisartan 80 mg plus HCTZ 12.5 mg for 4 weeks (phase 1). Patients whose BP was still uncontrolled (DBP (3)90 mm Hg) after 4 weeks of therapy were then given valsartan 160 mg plus HCTZ 25 mg for an additional 4 weeks (phase 2). The primary efficacy parameter was the reduction in DBP between week 4 and week 8 in the intention-to-treat (ITT) population. BP reduction during phase 1 was -14.3+/-11.3/-7.5+/-3.9 mm Hg. DBP was controlled in 26% of the patients after phase 1. In patients treated with valsartan 160 mg plus HCTZ 25 mg during phase 2, DBP decreased by an additional 10.3+/-6.5 mm Hg and the mean sitting systolic BP (SBP) by an additional 11.0+/-11.7 mm Hg. The additional decrease was significant (P<.0001) for both parameters and independent of the fixed-dose combination used during phase 1. Among patients whose BP remained uncontrolled during phase 1, 74% achieved a controlled DBP after phase 2. The incidence of adverse events during both phases was comparably low and the results of laboratory tests were unremarkable. Treatment with valsartan 160 mg/HCTZ 25 mg offered a substantial benefit for patients with hypertension not controlled with the combination of candesartan cilexetil 16 mg or telmisartan 80 mg and low dose HCTZ, while maintaining a comparable safety and tolerability profile.
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Telmisartan, which is structurally and functionally unique among ARB, was used in this study. Three rat groups were examined: A) no ARB administrated (RK, n=21); B) continuous subcutaneous infusion of an ARB administrated (RK-ARB, n=21); and C) a sham-operated group (Sham). Renal function was evaluated by blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels and creatinine clearance (Ccr). Fibrosis was evaluated by hydroxyproline levels and Masson's trichrome staining. Expressions of angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) were investigated by real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting.
SHR/NDmcr-cp (SHR-cp) rats display typical symptoms and features of the metabolic syndrome. We previously reported that endothelium-dependent relaxation decreases in the thoracic aortas of SHR-cp rats, despite increased nitric oxide (NO) production from the endothelium. In the present study, to search for the reasons for this contradiction, we investigated whether vascular abnormality could be reduced by treatment of SHR-cp rats with antihypertensive drugs; a calcium channel blocker (amlodipine), an alpha 2 and imidazoline receptor agonist (moxonidine), and an angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor antagonist (telmisartan). Telmisartan but not amlodipine and moxonidine ameliorated the impairment of relaxation in response to acetylcholine and the increased protein expression of endothelium NO synthase in thoracic aortas. All three drugs significantly lowered the blood pressure. Telmisartan decreased the serum levels of lipid peroxide and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine, oxidative stress markers, and also the aortic levels of the protein expression of gp91, a component of NADPH oxidase, and 3-nitrotyrosine, a biomarker of peroxynitrite. These findings suggest that NADPH oxidase-derived superoxide, probably produced due to stimulation of AT1 receptors, reacts with NO to form peroxynitrite, and consequently decreases active NO, leading to attenuation of endothelium-dependent relaxation. Angiotensin receptor antagonists may be effective for preventing endothelial dysfunction in metabolic syndrome.
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Hypertension management strategies have traditionally focused on "tailored therapy" and "stepped-care" approaches. These tend to be costly and time consuming and often fail to achieve adequate blood pressure (BP) control. The TRIUMPH study aims to investigate the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, and acceptability of early use of a 3-in-1 BP-lowering pill ("Triple Pill") compared with usual care for the management of hypertension.
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High sodium intake is associated with increased risk of end-organ damage, independent of blood pressure (BP) levels. The protective peptide adiponectin may play a role in the pathogenesis of hypertension and particularly in salt-loaded conditions. Furthermore, increased adiponectin levels were observed in salt-loaded conditions. However, there is little information on the direct effect of high-salt diet on plasma adiponectin. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of high-salt diet on adiponectin levels in Sprague-Dawley rats and explore the mechanisms that regulate adiponectin levels under salt loading.