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Detailed structural and functional studies over the last decade have led to current recognition of the mycobacterial lipoarabinomannan (LAM) as a phosphatidylinositol anchored lipoglycan with diverse biological activities. Fatty acylation has been demonstrated to be essential for LAM to maintain its functional integrity although the focus has largely been on the arabinan motifs and the terminal capping function. It has recently been shown that the mannose caps may be involved not only in attenuating host immune response, but also in mediating the binding of mycobacteria to and subsequent entry into macrophages. This may further be linked to an intracellular trafficking pathway through which LAM is thought to be presented by CD1 to subsets of T-cells. The implication of LAM as major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-independent T-cell epitope and the ensuing immune response is an area of intensive studies. Another recent focus of research is the biosynthesis of arabinan which has been shown to be inhibitable by the anti-tuberculosis drug, ethambutol. The phenomenon of truncated LAM as synthesized by ethambutol resistant strains provides an invaluable handle for dissecting the array of arabinosyltransferases involved, as well as generating much needed structural variants for further structural and functional studies. It is hoped that with more systematic investigations based on clinical isolates and human cell lines, the true significance of LAM in the immunopathogenesis of tuberculosis and leprosy can eventually be explained.
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Botswana, where in 2000 the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among adults was 38%, and the tuberculosis (TB) rate was 591/100,000. A 1995-1996 survey demonstrated low levels of anti-tuberculosis drug resistance.
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Between Jan. 1, 1971 and June 30, 1976 the authors diagnosed tuberculous peritonitis in 17 patients. The basis for the diagnosis was a positive culture for Mycobacterium tuberculosis from the peritoneal fluid or nodules (nine patients) or the presence of caseating granulomas in biopsy specimens of the peritoneum (eight patients). Fifteen of the 17 patients were women. Eleven were North American Indians and eight of them suffered from alcoholism. The predominant symptoms of abdominal pain, progressive abdominal distension and vomiting, and abdominal tenderness on physical examination were present both in alcoholics and in nonalcoholics. However, only the former had demonstrable ascites. The mean time from admission to hospital until establishment of the diagnosis was 8.3 days in six nonalcoholics and 49 days in the alcoholics (P less than 0.01). The delay in making the diagnosis in the patients with alcoholism resulted from a tendency to attribute their fever to alcoholic hepatitis and the ascites to portal hypertension. The mean duration of hospitalization was 160.3 days for the alcoholics and only 41.5 days for the nonalcoholics. Two of the eight alcoholics died, one of hepatic failure and the other, 3 years after the diagnosis of tuberculous peritonitis was made, of miliary tuberculosis.
Of 1940 foreign-born patients identified, 247 (12.7%, 95%CI 11.3-14.3) cases had isolates resistant to at least one of the first-line drugs, with 160 (8.3%) isolates showing monoresistance, 24 (1.2%) multidrug resistance (resistance to at least isoniazid and rifampin) and 63 (3.3%) polyresistance (resistance to two or more drugs, excluding MDR). Country-specific analysis showed that immigrants from Vietnam (adjusted OR 2.12, 95%CI 1.37-3.27) and the Philippines (adjusted OR 1.71, 95%CI 1.10-2.66) had a significantly higher risk of resistance than other immigrants. In addition, the risk was the highest for younger TB patients and patients with reactivated disease (adjusted OR 2.12, 95%CI 1.09-4.09).
The emergence of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) is a challenge to TB control in Europe. We evaluated second-line drug susceptibility testing in Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from patients with multidrug-resistant, pre-extensively drug-resistant (pre-XDR-TB) and XDR-TB at 23 TBNET sites in 16 European countries. Over 30% of bacilli from patients with pre-XDR-TB showed resistance to any fluoroquinolone and almost 70% to any second-line injectable drug. Respectively >90% and >80% of the XDR-TB strains tested showed phenotypic resistance to pyrazinamide and ethambutol. Resistance to prothionamide/ethionamide was high in bacilli from pre-XDR-TB patients (43%) and XDR-TB patients (49%).
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The 75 M.tuberculosis strains were isolated from sputum (47), pus (23), aspirate fluid (2), skin tissue (2) and gastric aspirate (1). Of these 49 (65.3%) isolates were sensitive and one (1.3%) was resistant to all the five drugs tested and by all the three methods. Eleven (14.7%) isolates were resistant to INH alone by the three methods. The E test method detected one isolate resistant to INH and 2 to RIF which were missed by the other two methods. The results obtained by all the three methods compared well.
Public ambulatory care centers in three districts of northern metropolitan Lima, Peru.
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Although prevention and control of spread of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis strains is a global challenge, there is paucity of data on the prevalence of DR-TB in patients diagnosed with TB in referral hospitals in Kenya. The present study assessed patients' characteristics and prevalence of drug resistant TB in sputa smear positive TB patients presenting to Coast Provincial General Hospital (CPGH) in Mombasa, Kenya.