pamelor starting dose
The QT interval measuring depolarisation and repolarisation has, when lengthened, been implicated as a risk factor for the development of torsades de pointes and sudden death, particularly in patients predisposed to these complications due to cardiovascular impairment. Since some of the medications used in psychiatry have been implicated, an extensive review of available literature was made of the major classes, including antipsychotics, antidepressants, lithium, anticonvulsants and benzodiazepines. Further, where no publications were found on a particular medication, the pharmaceutical firms responsible for these items were contacted concerning possibly unpublished data. Results of the survey indicate that there may be difficulty in one of three situations: immediate (in the first minutes to hours after oral or parenteral administration), short-term use of 4 - 12 weeks or long-term use of 6 months. Based on this approach, the greatest concern is directed at the immediate application of haloperidol, droperidol, pimozide and trazodone, the short-term use of thioridazine, pimozide, sertindole, nortriptyline, clomipramine, doxepin and the long-term use of clozapine, olanzapine and carbamazepine. It is of interest that a reduction in QTc is reported with aripiprazole. Among the antidepressants, the tertiary tricyclic antidepressants (imipramine, amitriptyline and doxepin) appear to have a more general impact, while the secondary tricyclic antidepressants (nortriptyline, desipramine) may impact more on children and the elderly. Among other antidepressants, the only reports of torsades de pointes appeared to occur with mirtazapine. It was also of interest to find data showing no effect or reductions in QTc produced by sertraline, citalopram, paroxetine and bupropion in multiple studies. Effects of medications on other heart parameters are also briefly reviewed. In particular, the safety of sertraline in post-MI patients and of bupropion in heart disease patients is highlighted. Little information was available on other classes of medications used in psychiatric disorders. What is available concerning lithium, the anticonvulsants and the benzodiazepines indicates little effect on the QTc, although there may be effects on other cardiovascular parameters.
pamelor user reviews
Clinically depressed outpatients (n=195) were asked about childhood experiences before beginning a randomized antidepressant trial with either fluoxetine or nortriptyline. Three treatment outcomes were measured: Adequate trial, six-week response and two months sustained recovery.
pamelor 15 mg
Data are presented on 13 patients (5 men, 8 women), ranging in age from 61 to 78 years (mean = 71.1). Mean time from spousal loss to the beginning of treatment was 11.9 months (range 2-25). Subjects were required to meet Research Diagnostic Criteria for syndromal current major depression and to have a stable Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D) score of greater than or equal to 15. Ten of the 13 volunteers were experiencing their first lifetime episode of major depression. Patients were treated with nortriptyline (mean dose = 49.2 mg/day; mean steady-state level = 68.1 ng/mL). Ratings performed at base-line and weekly during therapy were used to assess symptomatology, intensity of grief, level of functioning, social support, physical impairment, and medication side effects.
Review of medical records of 17 type-2 diabetic patients, aged 63+/-11 years and a duration of diabetes of 15+/-8 years. All patients received intensified insulin therapy with 0.35 units/kg of NPH insulin (2/3 before breakfast and 1/3 evening meal), plus capillary glucose measurements and regular insulin (with sliding-scale centered in approximately 0.1 units/kg) before the 3 main meals. All patients were also treated with gabapentin, nortriptyline or clomipramine. Pain was assessed using a visual analog score of 10 points.
pamelor drug interactions
Central norepinephrine transporter (NET) is one of the main targets of antidepressants. Although the measurement of NET occupancy has been attempted in humans, the outcomes have been inconclusive.
The authors assessed the severity of nortriptyline's side-effects in older patients with recurrent major depression during placebo-controlled, double-blind maintenance therapy. Data were from 37 patients completing 2-3 years of maintenance therapy; 29 were on nortriptyline and eight were on placebo. The authors detected a time-by-treatment interaction for dry mouth (greater in nortriptyline-treated patients), but no increased association of nortriptyline with constipation, weight change or orthostatic symptoms. Heart rate was consistently higher in nortriptyline-maintained patients as compared with placebo. The total 'side-effect' score on the Asberg Rating Scale, as well as complaints of physical tiredness, daytime sleepiness and nocturnal sleep disturbance, were related primarily to residual depression rather than treatment with nortriptyline.
pamelor 40 mg
Rats trained in a food-rewarded DRL 72-s schedule and showing stable baseline performance were administered with drugs i.p. once a week. In independent experiments, the influence of drugs on food intake, spontaneous locomotor activity and extracellular levels of monoamines in the frontal cortex was evaluated.