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Forty-two patients who had undergone endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) were studied. Mucosal blood flow was measured by the use of a laser Doppler flowmeter in the surrounding mucosa and at the ulcer margin, before, 1 day, 1 week and 4 weeks after EMR. Helicobacter pylori infection was confirmed by the use of bacterial culture and histology. After EMR, patients were randomly assigned to receive 30 mg lansoprazole (u.i.d; L-regimen) or 30 mg lansoprazole (u.i.d.) with 200 mg cetraxate (q.i.d; LC-regimen) for 4 weeks.
A total of 732 subjects received VPZ or LPZ. The proportion of healed EO subjects at week 4 was 92.3%, 92.5%, 94.4%, 97.0% and 93.2%, respectively, with VPZ 5, 10, 20 and 40 mg and LPZ 30 mg. All VPZ doses were non-inferior to LPZ when adjusted for baseline LA grades A/B and C/D. Among those with LA grades C/D, the proportions of healed EO subjects were 87.3%, 86.4%, 100%, 96.0% and 87.0%, respectively, with VPZ 5, 10, 20 and 40 mg and LPZ 30 mg. The incidence of adverse events was similar across the groups.
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A new series of N-Substituted 2-(benzhydryl- and benzylsulfinyl)nicotinamides 7 and 8 were synthesized. Upon acid activation in the acidic environment of the parietal cell, these compounds are converted into their active forms, 2,3-dihydro-3-oxoisothiazolo[5,4-b]pyridines 5, which inhibit gastric H+/K(+)-ATPase. Inhibitory activities against [14C]aminopyrine accumulation stimulated by dibutyryl cAMP in isolated rabbit parietal cells in vitro and histamine-induced gastric acid secretion in pylorus-ligated rats by intraduodenal administration in vivo were evaluated, and the structure-activity relationships were examined. Among the compounds synthesized, 2-[(2,4-dimethoxybenzyl)sulfinyl]-N-(4-pyridyl)nicotinamide (8b) showed potent inhibitory activities in vitro and in vivo equivalent to those of omeprazole, a typical H+/K(+)-ATPase inhibitor. Moreover, 8b was much more stable at neutral and weakly acidic pH than omeprazole, lansoprazole, and pantoprazole. Compound 8b is considered to be a promising agent for treating acid-related gastrointestinal disorders.
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H. pylori was resistant to metronidazole in three cases, to clarithromycin in three cases, and to both clarithromycin and metroinidazole in an additional three patients. No resistance to amoxicillin was found. Eradication was obtained in 20 cases (95.2% confidence interval [CI], 76.2-99.9). The only patient in whom infection was not eradicated harbored a metronidazole-resistant (minimum inhibitory concentration > 32 micrograms/ml) strain. No significant side effects were reported.
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This randomized, open-label, comparative five-way crossover study evaluated the 24-h intragastric pH profile of oral esomeprazole 40 mg, lansoprazole 30 mg, omeprazole 20 mg, pantoprazole 40 mg, and rabeprazole 20 mg once daily in 34 Helicobacter pylori-negative patients aged 18-60 yr with symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease. Patients were randomly assigned to one of five treatment sequences and study drug was taken on 5 consecutive mornings 30 minutes prior to a standardized breakfast. A washout period of at least 10 days separated each treatment phase.
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To assess the effects of intestinal cytochrome P450 2C19 on the interaction between tacrolimus and proton pump inhibitors, we examined the concentration/dose ratio [(ng/ml)/(mg/day)] of tacrolimus coadministered with omeprazole (20 mg) or lansoprazole (30 mg) to 89 adult living-donor liver transplant patients on postoperative days 22 to 28, considering the CYP2C19 genotypes of the native intestine and the graft liver, separately. The concentration/dose ratio of tacrolimus coadministered with omeprazole was significantly higher in patients with two variants (*2 or *3) for intestinal CYP2C19 (median, 6.38; range, 1.55-22.9) than intestinal wild-type homozygotes (median, 2.11; range, 1.04-2.54) and heterozygotes (median, 2.11; range, 0.52-4.33) (P = 0.010), but the extent of the increase was attenuated by carrying the wild-type allele in the graft liver even when patients were CYP3A5*1 noncarriers. Conversely, the CYP2C19 polymorphisms both in the native intestine and in the graft liver little influenced the interaction between tacrolimus and lansoprazole, but CYP3A5*1 noncarriers showed higher tacrolimus concentration/dose ratio than CYP3A5*1 carriers. Furthermore, our experiments in vitro revealed that lansoprazole had a stronger inhibitory effect on the CYP3A5-mediated metabolism of tacrolimus than omeprazole, although not significantly (IC(50) = 19.9 +/- 13.8 microM for lansoprazole, 53.7 +/- 6.1 microM for omeprazole). Our findings suggest that intestinal and graft liver CYP2C19 plays a relatively greater role in the metabolism of omeprazole than it does for lansoprazole, so that the effects of CYP3A5 on the metabolism of tacrolimus might be masked by the interaction with omeprazole associated with the CYP2C19 genotype.
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The intake of proton pump inhibitors may interfere with the reliability of the urea breath test.
Helicobacter pylori resistance to antibiotics is the main factor for therapy failure, while other features remain largely unknown. The aims of this study are to investigate the relationship of antibiotic resistance and in vitro internalization activity between cure and failure isolates and to determine whether failures are associated with persistence of the same predominant strain.
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A clinical decision analysis comparing the PPI-first strategy and the H2RA-first "step-up" strategy for the acute treatment of reflux esophagitis in Japan was performed, using a Markov chain approach.
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In group A, maximal concentration (C(max)) was 1023 +/- 775 (mg. L(-1))/(17 mg. m(-2)), time to reach C(max) was 1.8 +/- 0.8 hours, elimination half-life was 1.5 +/- 2.0 hours, area under the concentration-time curve from time zero to infinity [AUC(0-infinity)] was 3503 +/- 6025 (mg. L(-1). h)/(17 mg. m(-2)), apparent plasma clearance was 0.57 +/- 0.47 L. h(-1). kg(-1), and apparent volume of distribution was 0.61 +/- 0.36 L. kg(-1). In group B, C(max) was 750 +/- 511 (mg. L(-1))/(17 mg. m(-2)), time to reach C(max) was 1.8 +/- 1.1 hours, elimination half-life was 1.2 +/- 1.1 hours, AUC(0-infinity) was 2351 +/- 3691 (mg. L(-1). h)/(17 mg. m(-2)), apparent plasma clearance was 0.71 +/- 0.50 L. h(-1). kg(-1), and apparent volume of distribution was 0.9 +/- 0.7 L. kg(-1). No influence of age was shown on pharmacokinetic parameters in both groups. However, data suggested that elimination was reduced in neonates and higher in infants than in adults. The values for 24-hour percentage of time at gastric pH <4 and pH <3 were 61% +/- 21% and 51% +/- 21% (group A) and 47% +/- 24% and 37% +/- 21% (group B), respectively. In both groups the antisecretory effect decreased with age, and in group A it was positively correlated to C(max) and AUC(0-infinity). The mean gastrin serum concentration significantly increased (+31%) after 12.6 +/- 1.5 days of treatment.